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462                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
Chikishliar, near the mouth of the River Atrek. Strong
protests were made by Persia, but in vain. The new-
comers gradually extended their authority over the
neighbouring Yamut Turkoman and surveyed the routes
to the interior. The avowed object of Russia was to
open up a direct route into Central Asia, a policy under-
taken no doubt partly in the interests of the province
of Turkestan.
The activity of the Russian pioneers naturally caused
widespread uneasiness. The Khan of Khiva felt that
the demand made on him to co-operate in opening up
communications with the Sea of Aral across his territory
menaced his independence. A campaign against Khiva had
been decided upon in principle for some time ; it was,
indeed, forced on Russia by Khivan support of the
Kirghiz rising. In 1873 three columns advanced simul-
taneously from Krasnovodsk, from Perovski, and from
Orenburg. Two of these1 reached the great oasis safely,
encountering no resistance, and Russia annexed the land
on the right bank of the Amu Darya, where she constructed
'two forts. The young Khan was reinstated on the throne,
but a crushing war indemnity of nearly a quarter of a
million sterling was imposed.
Persian Campaigns against the Turkoman, 1857-1860.
Before we come to the final phase of the Russian advance,
we must turn for a moment to the relations existing
between Persia and the Turkoman at this period. In
1857 Sultan Murad Mirza> Governor - General of
Khorasan, invited eighty Turkoman to a conference at
Meshed, where they were treacherously seized and im-
prisoned. Having by this act weakened the man-stealers,
the Persian Governor-General marched on Merv, which
he occupied as the result of a victory. Three years later
he was succeeded by Hamza Mirza, who occupied Merv
a second time without opposition, but was defeated in an
attempt on the entrenched camp of the Tekke close by.
His army fled in complete disorder, leaving its guns to
1 The Krasnovodsk column was forced to retreat from lack of water, after burying
its guns in the sand. Burnaby comments on the fact that no use was made of water
transport, although steamers had penetrated as far as Kungrad on the Amu Darya to the
north of the Khivajo. oasis.